A layer-1 network is another term for a base blockchain. Layer-1 protocols include BNB, Smart Chain (BNB), Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin (BTC), and Solana. They are referred to as layer-1 as they’re the primary networks in their ecosystem. Off-chains and other layer-2 solutions are created on top of the main chains, as compared to layer-1 solutions.
In other words, when a protocol processes and finalises transactions on its own blockchain, it is considered layer 1. They also have their own native coin, which they use to pay transaction fees.
Blockchain developers have been focusing their efforts on scalability solutions, with little concern for alternatives. Some of the most popular layer 1 blockchain instances demonstrate how alternative scaling techniques may be provided via layer 1 options. Layer 1 solutions, for example, may allow for larger block sizes than the underlying protocol. To make things even better, the blockchain network may be able to do more transactions in a single block of code.
One example of a layer-2 protocol is Bitcoin’s Lightning Network. It allows users to perform transactions without restrictions before they are recorded on the main chain.